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Martin Dalby Keeper Of The Pass, The (1971) 17'
S 3 Cl (Eb B-Cl T-Sax) Perc Pf

All Contributors: Martin Dalby (composer)
Commissioned by: Edinburgh International Festival
First performed on: 4 Sep 1971
First performed by: jane Manning and the Matrix Ensemble
First performed at: Edinburgh

Programme Note:

The Keeper of the Pass (1971) Martin Dalby







Based on words from the Chinese Book of Changes, Tao Te Ching (Lao Tzu), early Christian writings, Mother Julian of Norwich, The Didache and Nietzsche.



Programme note:



The Keeper of the Pass reflects Dalby's interest in mysticism, not only Christian mysticism but also similar conditions in other religions of the world, in particular the philosophies of ancient China. His concern stems from the apparent disinterest of modern churches in the spiritual aspects of man's existence and their embarrassment by the implications of the Holy Spirit; their denial of some of the most perfect configurations of their heritage such as the Tridentine Mass, to him a masterpiece in religious drama representing the highest attainments of man's soul, yet capable of exposing his utmost depravity.







It was his intention to set, without comment, texts stating opposing views, as Blake does in such poems as The Clod and the Pebble. In Dalby's case, early Christian writings proclaiming Christianity as the way of life were to be set in conflict with Nietzsche declaiming it as the way of death. The wealth of totally convinced writers and mystics bewildered him and he became worried by the severity of the task he had set himself and consequently by his lateness in starting to write the music. In an attempt to find a solution he consulted the I Ching, the ancient Chinese Book of Changes. He chose one of its sixty-four hexagrams by the random method of throwing three coins. The book offered the oracle HsŸ, Waiting:







If you are sincere,



You have light and success



Perseverance brings good fortune.



It furthers one to cross the water.







Here with uncanny perception, the book was assessing his situation and providing comfort. The oracle goes on:







Clouds rise up to heaven:



The image of WAITING.



Thus the superior man eats and drinks,



Is joyous and of good cheer.







Unlike the usual clairvoyant who claims to foresee the future, the I Ching also offers a course of action. When clouds rise in the sky, it is a sign that rain will fall. John Cage has used the Book of Changes in such works as Music of Changes to determine all his musical material. Dalby, on the other hand, has used it to determine a dramatic shape and to help him in selecting texts and placing them in a relationship which neither insults the sincerity of the writers nor confuses the relationship between their beliefs and Dalby's.







One falls into the pit.



Three uninvited guests arrive.



Honour them, and in the end there will be good fortune.







Thus Nietzsche's diatribe towards the end of the work becomes one of the uninvited guests, both the modern threat to the rich heritage of religious thought and the realisation of the spiritual suicide implicit in the present-day trends of ecclesiastical materialism.







The title of the work is an oblique reference to the Keeper of the Pass who allegedly urged Lao Tzu to write the two books of Tao Te Ching before he departed from the declining State of Ch'u into the unknown. The transcending of Lao Tzu seems a parallel to the attainments of other mystics.







The text threads a course from references to the hexagram Waiting through a selection of short passages from the Tao Te Ching, early Christian writings, such mystics as Julian of Norwich and St Teresa of Avila, and the Didache, to a passage from Nietzsche's The Anti-Christ. It ends with Confucius ;







I know a bird can fly, a fish can swim, and an animal can run. For that which runs a net can be made; for that which swims a line can be made; for that which flies a corded arrow can be made. But the dragon's ascent into heaven on the wind and the clouds is something which is beyond my knowledge.







© Copyright 1971 by Martin Dalby















Scoring: Soprano, 3 Clarinets, (one doubling on E flat Clarinet, another on Bass Clarinet and the third on Tenor Saxophone), Piano, Percussion [1 player]: 2 Bongos. 2 Congas, Tenor Drum, Bass Drum, 2 Suspended Cymbals (high and low), Low Wood Block, Clapper, Wind Chimes, Wood Chimes, Crotales, Triangle.







Commission: Edinburgh International Festival







Commission fee: £100







First Performance: The Matrix: Jane Manning (soprano), Paul Crossley (piano), Tristan Fry (percussion), Alan Hacker, Tony Coe and Francis Christou (clarinets and saxophones), Freemason's Hall, Edinburgh, 4 September 1971







Duration: about 16 minutes







Completed: London: August, 1971.







Publisher: Novello & Company Limited, Hire



(Promotions and Copyright)



8/9 Frith Street, London W1V 5TZ.







Tel: 0171 434 0066.



Fax: 0171 287 6329







(Distribution and Rental)



Newmarket Road,



Bury St. Edmunds,



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Tel: 01284 702600



Fax: 01284 703401







Copyright: 1. Penguin Books Ltd, 21 John Street, London







D.C.Lau (tr): TAO TE CHING.



© Copyrigh D.C.Lau, 1963, published by Penguin Books Ltd. (27%*)







R.J.Hollingdale (tr): TWILIGHT OF THE IDOLS by Friedrich Nietzsche.



© Copyright R.J.Hollingdale,1968, published by Penguin Books Ltd. (20%*)







Maxwell Stanniforth (tr): EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITINGS.



© Copyright Maxwell Stanniforth, published by Penguin Books Ltd (10%*)







Clifton Wolters (tr): REVELATIONS OF DIVINE LOVE by Julian of Norwich.



© Copyright by Clifton Wolters, 1966, published by Penguin Books Ltd (12%*)







* The percentage share was the PRS's idea. In fact in a letter from Penguin books (28/01/72) they ask for £3.50 for each live concert. The licence granted covers non-exclusive performing rights in the United Kingdom only. An extension of this licence was sought to cover an impending broadcast and to make the PRS's proposal, on 30 March 1972. No reply was received from Penguin Books.







2. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Broadway House, 68-74 Carter Lane, London EC4V 5EL.







Carey F. Baynes (tr): I CHING OR BOOK OF CHANGES translated into German by Richard Wilhelm. © Copyright by Bollingen Foundation Inc., New York 1950 and 1967, published by Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.(31%*)







USA and Canadian performances require further permission from Princeton University Press (Bollingen Foundation).







* This is the division of author's fees of that part of the royalty due to them. (Presumably 50% of the total.) These terms were negotiated by MD in 1972.







Now, the Copyright has been assigned to Novello who presumably have their own arrangements about the share of the royalties.







3. Concert programmes: £0.50 to Penguin and £0.25 to Routledge & Kegan Paul when programmes are sold to the public.







Full acnowledgements to made including publishers. [See below ( )]















Text: Clouds rise up to heaven:



The image of WAITING.



The superior man eats and drinks,



Is joyous and of good cheer.







Waiting in the meadow.



It furthers one to abide in what endures.







WAITING.



If you are sincere,



You have light and success.



Perseverance brings good fortune.



It furthers one to cross the great water.







 (Book of Changes - Richard Wilhelm translation, English version by Cary F. Baynes. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London.)







Is not the way of heaven like the stretching of a bow?



The high it presses down, the low it lifts up...



It is the way of heaven to take from what has in excess



in order to make good what is deficient.







There is a thing confusedly formed. Born from heaven and earth.



Silent and void it stands alone and does not change, goes round and does not weary.







 (Tao te Ching - Lao Tzu, translated by T.C.Lau, Penguin Books Ltd.)







Waiting on the sand.



There is some gossip.



The end brings good fortune.







Waiting in the mud.



Brings about the arrival of the enemy.







 (Book of Changes - Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd)







I have drawn back the curtain on the depravity of man.







There are days when I am haunted by a feeling blacker than the blackest melancholy Ñ contempt of man. And so as to leave no doubt as to what I despise, whom I despise: it is the man of today, the man with whom I am fatefully contemporary. I suffocate of his impure breath.







 (The Anti-Christ - Nietzsche, translated by R.J.Hollingdale, Penguin Books)







Flee for your very life from these men; they are poisonous growths with a deadly fruit, one taste of it is speedily fatal. They are none of the father's planting.







 (Epistle to the Trallians - Ignatious of Antioch. Early Christian Writings, translated by Maxwell Stanniforth, Penguin Books)







Waiting on the sand.







 (Book of Changes - Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd)







I was led in imagination down on to the sea bed, and there I saw green hills and valleys looking as though they were moss-covered, with sea weed and sand.







After this I looked, and saw the body which was bleeding copiously. The fair skin was broken and there were deep weals in the tender flesh of that dear smitten body.







 (Revelations of Divine Love - Julian of Norwich, translated by Clifton Wolters, Penguin Books)







Waiting in blood







 (Book of Changes - Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd)







The way of Death is this.



To begin with, it is evil, and in every way fraught with damnation. In it are murders, adulteries, lusts, fornications, thefts, idolatries, witchcraft, sorceries, robberies, perjuries, hypocrisies, avarice, jealousy, arrogance, and boastfulness. Here are those who persecute good men, hold truth in abhorrence, and love falsehood; who lie awake planning wickedness rather than well-doing.







 (The Didache - Early Christian Writings, translated by Maxwell Stamforth, Penguin Books)







I can write in letters which make even the blind see...... I call Christianity the one great curse, the one great intrinsic depravity, the one great instinct for revenge for which no expedient is sufficiently poisonous, secret, subterranean, petty - I call it the one immortal blemish of mankind.







 (The Anti-Christ - Nietzsche, translated by R.J.Hollingdale, Penguin Books)







I know a bird can fly, a fish can swim, and an animal can run. For that which runs a net can be made; for that which swims a line can be made; for that which flies a corded arrow can be made. But the dragon's ascent into heaven on the wind and the clouds is something which is beyond my knowledge.







 (Confucius, from the introduction to Tao Te Ching by T.C.Lau, Penguin Books)







 acnowledgements: copyright lines must be inluded and printed as below:







1. Penguin Books Ltd, 21 John Street, London







D.C.Lau (tr): TAO TE CHING.



© Copyrigh D.C.Lau, 1963, published by Penguin Books Ltd.







R.J.Hollingdale (tr): TWILIGHT OF THE IDOLS by Friedrich Nietzsche.



© Copyright R.J.Hollingdale,1968, published by Penguin Books Ltd.







Maxwell Stanniforth (tr): EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITINGS.



© Copyright Maxwell Stanniforth, published by Penguin Books Ltd







Clifton Wolters (tr): REVELATIONS OF DIVINE LOVE by Julian of Norwich.



© Copyright by Clifton Wolters, 1966, published by Penguin Books Ltd







2. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Broadway House, 68-74 Carter Lane, London EC4V 5EL.







Carey F. Baynes (tr): I CHING OR BOOK OF CHANGES translated into German by Richard Wilhelm.



© Copyright by Bollingen Foundation Inc., New York 1950 and 1967, published by Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.







WARNING: The arrangements for the use of copyright material seem to Dalby to be an incomplete mess.